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What is Ripple? A 101 guide to Ripple and XRP

See how the Ripple blockchain platform aims to transform the global payments industry.

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XRP cryptocurrency coins

This guide will take a closer look at Ripple's global payments network, how XRP works and what the future may hold for this ambitious project.

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In this guide:

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  • XRP

    Live XRP (XRP) price

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    Data sourced from Binance

    XRP at a glance

    Ticker symbolXRP
    UseCross-border Payments
    Year released2012
    OriginUnited States
    Maximum supply100,000,000,000
    Consensus algorithmProof of Correctness
    Notable team membersBrad Garlinghouse, David Schwartz, Stefan Thomas
    Notable partnershipsAccenture, American Express, Deloitte, Royal Bank of Canada, MoneyGram, National Australia Bank, Western Union, Westpac
    Mineable?No
    Learn more about XRP

    What are Ripple and XRP?

    Launched in 2012, XRP is now one of the world's largest cryptocurrencies. It aims to offer fast, affordable and reliable cross-border payments. Both XRP and the XRP Ledger are used by US technology company Ripple, which develops a range of solutions designed to transform the global payment industry.

    "The revolution of blockchain is not going to happen from outside the system; it's going to happen from within the system."
    - Brad Garlinghouse, Ripple CEO

    Ripple is a San Francisco-based technology company with more than 300 employees, focused on providing cross-border payment solutions.

    Ripple's main aim is to create a global settlement network that ensures more efficient transactions between the world's financial institutions.

    The platform is designed to allow users – primarily financial institutions – to transfer money from any currency to any other currency in a matter of seconds, anywhere in the world. This is an ambitious goal meant to eliminate the need for older systems like SWIFT.

    Before going any further, we should point out that the term "Ripple" is often used interchangeably, and often incorrectly, to refer to a few different things.

    XRP

    XRP is the name of the digital currency that facilitates transactions on the Ripple network. It effectively acts as a bridge between the two currencies being transferred, and also serves as a source of liquidity when necessary. XRP is the native asset of the XRP Ledger, an open-source blockchain that runs on a network of peer-to-peer servers.

    Ripple

    This is the American technology company that develops the Ripple payment protocol and network. Originally known as OpenCoin, it later traded as Ripple Labs before rebranding to Ripple in 2015.

    RippleNet

    This is Ripple's network of payment providers around the world. It connects the different payment networks of banks, payment providers, digital asset exchanges and corporate entities, and can accept both fiat and cryptocurrencies.

    XRP vs Ripple: What's the difference?

    The term "Ripple" is often used to describe the XRP cryptocurrency, but this is in fact incorrect.

    Ripple is the California-based tech company that aims to make it faster, easier and more affordable to send cross-border payments.

    XRP (XRP) is the independent digital asset that facilitates transactions on the Ripple network, acting as a bridge between different fiat currencies and as a source of liquidity.

    [INFOGRAPHIC] An in-depth comparison of XRP and Ripple.

    Where to buy XRP

    Name Product Deposit methods Fiat Currencies Supported Cryptocurrencies
    BPAY
    Cash
    Cryptocurrency
    POLi
    AUD
    BTC, BCH, ETH, XRP, ADA, XEM, LTC, XLM, TRX, DASH, NEO, XMR, EOS, QTUM, BTG, LSK, ETC, XVG, SKY, NAS, LINK, GO & over 100+ more
    CoinSpot is an Australian-based marketplace that allows you to easily buy, sell or trade more than 100 cryptocurrencies.
    Credit card
    Debit card
    Neteller
    PayPal
    Wire transfer
    Yandex Money
    China Union Pay
    Giropay (Sofortüberweisung)
    Skrill Limited UK
    WebMoney
    Wire
    Local Online Banking
    EUR, GBP, NZD, USD, AUD, CAD, CHF, NOK, ZAR, JPY, SEK, TRY, HUF, PLN
    BTC, ETH, BCH, XRP, DASH, LTC, ETC, ADA, MIOTA, XLM, EOS, NEO, TRX, ZEC, BNB, XTZ
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    Cash
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    BTC, ETH, XRP, BCH, EOS, XVG, LTC, ADA, MIOTA, TRX, NEO, DASH, XMR, XEM, VET, ETC, ICX, QTUM, OMG, & 70+ more
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    How XRP works: The technology behind Ripple

    Current methods of sending money internationally are outdated and slow. This is best summed up in this excerpt from Ripple's cost model paper:

    "Today's global payments infrastructure moves money from one payment system to another through a series of internal book transfers across financial institutions. Because these book transfers occur across different systems with a low level of coordination, funds settlement is slow (often 3-5 days, trapping liquidity), error-prone (error rates run upwards of 12.7%), and costly ($1.6 trillion in system-wide costs for global cross-border transactions)."

    Despite the fact that the global remittances industry is huge, there's currently no streamlined and well-organised international network to handle cross-border payments. This is the problem Ripple aims to solve. However, rather than going toe-to-toe in competition with the banking Goliaths that currently control this sector, Ripple's plan is to partner with major financials around the world to offer a blockchain-based solution.

    By joining Ripple's global network, Ripple says that financial institutions can process their customers' payments anywhere in the world instantly, reliably and cost-effectively.

    How long do XRP payments take to settle?

    Let's say Bank A in Australia wants to send $5 million to Bank B in Bangladesh. Rather than converting Australian dollars to Bangladeshi taka, battling exchange rate margins, paying processing fees and facing slow transaction times along the way, Bank A can transfer $5 million worth of XRP to Bank B's Ripple wallet, which can then be converted to the local currency.

    Payments using XRP settle in four seconds, and the current minimum transaction cost required by the network for a standard transaction is 0.00001 XRP. The network is also currently capable of consistently handling 1,500 transactions per second.

    XRP settlement Image: Finder

    Payment settlement times of XRP vs other platforms Source: Ripple

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    xCurrent vs xRapid vs xVia: What's the difference?

    Ripple offers three products to banks and payment providers around the world:

    XRP supply and tokenomics

    The maximum supply of 100 billion XRP has already been created. However, as of December 2018, the circulating supply sits at about 41 billion.

    Escrow release

    This is because Ripple, the company behind the cryptocurrency, owns some 60% of the total supply of XRP. At the time of writing (May 2018) most of Ripple's holdings (around 55 billion XRP) are locked in an escrow account, with up to 1 billion XRP to be released every month for a period of 55 months.

    Of the 1 billion XRP released each month, any unused amounts are put back into escrow and will be re-released in the first month that there are no other XRP releases. Essentially, the unused amounts are sent to the back of the queue.

    Deflation

    XRP is also deflationary. While the total XRP supply started off at 100 billion (100,000,000,000), by the end of 2018 it was down to only 99.99 billion (99,991,757,426 according to CoinMarketCap).

    That's because XRP is a deflationary currency, with every transaction incurring a small fee (to prevent spam attacks) which is destroyed during the transaction.

    The minimum fee for each XRP transaction is 0.00001 XRP (also known as 10 drops, or a fraction of a cent), although certain movements such as multisignature transactions, or escrow transactions, will incur higher fees.

    So, in about 6 years of its life, around 8 million XRP has been destroyed by deflation. Even with generous predictions of XRP uptake it's estimated that it would take thousands of years for circulating numbers to get low enough to start being a concern. Plus, XRP can be divided into individual drops (0.000001 XRP) if needed.

    The fees and therefore the burn rate can also be modified by consensus at a later date.

    In the immediate future, the real circulating supply of XRP will actually be increasing much more quickly than it's decreasing as Ripple releases XRP from its escrow account.

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    Is XRP centralised or decentralised?

    Picture not describedQuestions you might have
    The XRP blockchain works differently to Bitcoin, Ethereum and most others, and has often been criticised as being not truly decentralised.

    The point of decentralisation in this context is primarily to ensure that it's impossible to interfere with the network by blocking or reversing transactions, sending money you don't have and similar.

    If one entity manages to take control of a large enough part of the network, or if a sufficient number of participants collude to attack the network, they might be able to interfere with the network in these kinds of ways.

    • Public ledgers like Bitcoin: Theoretically anyone can participate in the mining process, and be rewarded with cryptocurrency for processing transactions and maintaining the ledger. Network security depends on having a diverse range of independent miners, it assumes that miners are motivated by profits and it aims to ensure that attacking the network is less profitable than doing the right thing.
    • XRP Ledger: There are no direct rewards for node operators. Rather, running a node is its own reward because it helps maintain the XRP Ledger which should be providing a valuable service. There are two kinds of nodes, but only the "trusted" ones will actually have a say in whether transactions are processed. The untrusted ones are mostly just along for the ride.

    One of the reasons XRP Ledger is so fast compared to Bitcoin and other public blockchains is essentially because it depends on that tighter and faster set of "trusted nodes" to do the heavy lifting. These nodes can be found on Ripple's Unique Node List. Getting a spot on that list means publicly identifying and verifying oneself to the world.

    XRP price trend

    Ripple team

    Ripple, the San Francisco-based fintech company behind XRP, was founded in 2012. Though the project has roots dating back to 2004, it wasn't until Jed McCaleb and Chris Larsen joined forces in August 2012 that the Ripple we know today truly began to take shape.

    Today, Ripple is led by CEO Brad Garlinghouse and notable team members like chief cryptographer David Schwartz and CTO Stefan Thomas.

    Notable partnerships

    The list of financial institutions and organisations that have partnered with Ripple is an impressive one and stretches to more than 100 customers. Some of the highlights of 2018 include:

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    • What to watch out for

    The biggest obstacle to Ripple's quest for global domination is the adoption (or lack thereof) of XRP by banks and financial institutions around the world, and that's where the focus of the people behind Ripple might be.

    If more banks join the network, this could encourage demand for XRP and entice other banks to join the platform, but Ripple may also face stiff competition from Stellar.

    And that's before we even get to the established players in this space. Ripple needs to not only outperform other blockchain payment solutions, but also needs to be an improvement on the in-house blockchain creations being trialled by financial institutions around the world.

    SWIFT currently connects more than 11,000 of the world's financial institutions through its own network, and has been working on its own trials of blockchain technology. Credit card giant Visa is exploring its own blockchain-based cross-border payment options, so Ripple won't be able to just waltz in and take a big chunk of market share without a fight.

    Another key challenge that could hamper the price growth of XRP is its inability to gain listings on popular US exchanges like Coinbase and Gemini. The Coinbase listing was heavily rumoured in early 2018 but never eventuated, and reports from April 2018 suggest that XRP is unlikely to feature on either of these platforms any time soon.

    There are also ongoing questions about the role of XRP within the Ripple ecosystem. Usage and network effects might drive price actions to a large extent, but this may not translate into higher prices as directly as one might expect. Trillions of dollars are crossing borders each year, but it's still not clear how much market cap XRP needs to adequately service the industry.

    The XRP Ledger's construction and design choices have also attracted some criticism.

    Bottom line

    With partnerships galore and strong financial backing, Ripple is a major player in the crypto world. It's designed with a focus on bridging the gap between the traditional banking industry and the new age of digital currencies, and as anyone who's ever been gouged while sending an international money transfer will agree, it's targeting a market sector that's crying out for disruption.

    But whether or not Ripple has the product to challenge the old guard of the world's financial industry remains to be seen, so research the project thoroughly before deciding whether or not you should buy any XRP.

    Ripple frequently asked questions about Ripple

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    8 Responses

    1. Default Gravatar
      NeilJanuary 8, 2018

      Hi there, how do i purchase ripple using cash? Do I go to an accredited australian post office (just like when buying bitcoin)? I do not want to pay via paypal or fund transfer hence, my question. Thanks, Neil

      • Default Gravatar
        ArnoldJanuary 9, 2018

        Hi Neil,

        Thanks for your inquiry

        This will depend on the exchange you have chosen to buy XRP from. Please contact the exchange’s support for clarification about this.

        Hope this information helps

        Cheers,
        Arnold

    2. Default Gravatar
      MikeJanuary 2, 2018

      Hello
      I am a newbie at this ………I have XRP sat on two exchanges BTC and Etoro – should I move them into a wallet ?..or is it OK to leave them on the exchange?

      Many Thanks

      • Avatarfinder Customer Care
        DeeJanuary 3, 2018Staff

        Hi Mike,

        The answer to your question will depend on your intention. If you are not considering trading your cryptocurrency just yet, then the safest thing to do is always to withdraw your coins to a wallet.

        On this page, you may compare cryptocurrency wallets that you can use for the purpose of saving your coins. Ledger Nano is one that supports XRP.
        I hope this helps.

        Cheers,
        Anndy

    3. Default Gravatar
      AlissaDecember 22, 2017

      I am having trouble finding a suitable wallet to use for Ripple. Do you have any suggestions?

      • Default Gravatar
        ArnoldDecember 22, 2017

        Hi Alissa,

        Thanks for your inquiry

        Ripple wallets require you to have 20XRP to book your wallet address. So if you add 1000 XRP to your Ripple wallet, 20XRP will be used to book the wallet address. This is one reason you don’t want to use multiple wallets for XRP (unless required).

        Pick the right wallet from day one so that you don’t end up losing 20XRP on various wallet addresses.

        Your first option is Ledger Nano S it is a hardware wallet that has recently added support for XRP.

        Being a hardware wallet, it is one of the best ways to store your cryptocurrency as it offers great security, ease of use, and you can carry it with you anywhere.

        Second option is Binance. It is not a wallet. It is a fast growing exchange that started in the mid of the 2017 year and is rapidly adopting many new cryptocurrencies for its users. If you want to get XRP right now, you can use Binance to get an XRP wallet.

        However, you should not store your XRP for more than 1-2 days on an exchange (any exchange) as exchanges can shut down or go into issues at any time and put you at risk of losing your stored coins.

        Hope this information helps

        Cheers,
        Arnold

    4. Default Gravatar
      joeDecember 14, 2017

      Hi.. I am looking for the cheapest way to buy into ripple either by bank transfer or poli. Can you recommend a platform with low fees to trade please.

      • Avatarfinder Customer Care
        HaroldDecember 14, 2017Staff

        Hi Joe,

        Thank you for your inquiry.

        As per checking you are already on the right page. What you can do next is to compare the available options that will best fit your personal requirements. You can check the list of Ripple brokers and Ripple exchanges on the table provided above.

        I hope this information has helped.

        Cheers,
        Harold

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