This guide will help you understand the concept of going long vs going short with Contract for Differences (CFD).
Taking the long or short option is betting on the contract for different values moving up or down. The difference in the long and short option is the potential loss or profit made on the trades.
What is a contract for difference?
A contract for difference (CFD) is a particular form of contract between you (payer) and your broker (seller) based on the price of a particular asset. When the contract is signed, this price is called the "entry price", whereas at the end of the contract it is called the "exit price".
If the exit price of a particular asset is higher than the entry price, the seller has to pay the difference to the buyer: this is called the "long position".
If the exit price is lower, the buyer has to pay the difference to the seller: this is called the "short position". That’s why it’s called a "contract for difference". It’s based on the prices and the buyer does not get any right over the asset.
Examples of assets can be shares indexes, shares and commodities such as gold or oil.
CFDs are normally purchased on a margin basis: every financial derivative has its own percentage. The margin can identified as a deposit for the purchase of the particular asset. If you buy 100 shares at $5 each and the margin is 5%, you will pay $5 x 100 x 5% which equals to $25. There’s also the opportunity to take advantage of leverage. If you use a leverage of 100:1, your investment would be $5 x 100 x100 x 5% = $2,500.
Taking the long position
The long position means the trader expects the value of the security or asset in question to increase.
For example, stock XYZ trades at $5 and an increase is expected. If the investment is $5,000 and the initial margin is 5%, that means you can purchase 25,000 shares (calculated as follows: 5,000/5 = 1,000 shares divided per 5% = 25,000). Let’s assume that in two weeks the stock increases to $5.10 at the time of sale: the 5% is covered and the stock has appreciated. The profit is equal to the differential between the entry and exit price: ($6,375 – $5,000) = $1,375.
Please keep in mind that this is gross profit and that you have to subtract the cost of the trade being open for two weeks and also the trading commissions due. At the end of this calculation you will get the net profit from the long position.
The short position
When the short position is discussed the trader expects the value of the security in question to decrease. An example is if the XYZ stock trades at $5 and a decrease is expected.
If the investment is $5,000 of funding and the margin is initially 5%, in order to gain a profit you need to sell the shares and then re-buy later on. You will sell 25,000 shares.
Let’s assume that the stock decreases to $4.75 in a couple of weeks, the 5% is covered and the stock has depreciated. This time you will get $6,250 of profit. As mentioned in the previous case, this is gross profit.
This time you need to add the amount of interest received for the two weeks when the position is open. The net profit will be calculated as follows: gross profit plus interests minus trading commission.
What’s the difference?
The difference between the long and short positions lies basically in the interest rate that has to be subtracted from the gross profit in the case of the long position and added in the case of the short position.
Here you can see an example on how the long and short positions work:
|Long Option||Short Option|
|Fee CFD Position (open)||$150||$150|
|Fee CFD Position (closed)||$160||$140|
|Profit - gross||$10,000||$10,000|
|Interest subtracted (long)||$257||-|
|Interest added (short)||-||$235|
|Profit - net||$9,433||$9,945|
In this particular case you could make a higher profit from the short position because of the "interest" factor.
Let’s assume that in both cases you get a loss. In the long position you have to add the interest, while in the short position you need to subtract the interest. In such cases going long will minimise the loss, whereas going short will increase the loss.
Using leverage could also boost your profits as much as your losses: it would be better to limit this financial tool if you are a newbie.